Following on from the comments about Eritrea, my mind wandered to ask which countries have not been linked to a published O.R. paper.
According to the Traveler's Century Club there are 319 countries in the world (I'm not a member as you have to have visited one hundred or more from their list, and my tally is about sixty). The United Nations has 192 members. The International Federation of Operational Research Societies (IFORS) has "over forty five" members (it was 48 when the roll was called at the last IFORS conference, but there are a few national societies whose current existence is uncertain. So we can reckon that there is work on O.R. in those countries.
But which countries are missing?
My quick check found no O.R. papers from:
from my knowledge of Africa and Asia. I would be interested if anyone can correct this list. I need to look at South America.
(My "rules" are that a paper should be about an application in the country, or which has been developed with enough data from the country to claim relevance. The "rules" do not say that the work should have been implemented.)